The reasons for the growth in demand in the cultural and creative industries may be briefly summarised as follows:
1. The development of the New Economy driven by ICT and the Internet Economy, which have their origins in key scientific innovations (computer science, information and communication science, digitization, the Internet and software applications) has made it possible to produce instruments and equipment for the consumption of audiovisual culture which is available and accessible for billions of people worldwide at relatively low costs. The demand for culture, in turn, has recorded a very high growth rate following the development of educational processes, new urbanization phenomena, the creation of mega-cities, and the rise in income and individual wealth. This worldwide trend has driven the demand for content-industry goods (publishing, films, music, audiovisual products, museums, and libraries) and the goods of other cultural industries and auxiliary services supplying the markets of cultural and creative goods (advertising, legal systems and education).
2. The international trade system has also developed new trends in terms of both increased exchanges and the variety of products traded. The concessions introduced by new trade treaties have made it possible to go beyond the old logic of trading natural resources and/or low-cost labor from emerging countries for high-tech goods or goods with the symbolic value produced by advanced industrial countries. In particular, the enormous market for material culture goods, i.e. the market for all the goods and services produced for a person’s survival, protection, leisure, entertainment, culture, and wellbeing, has not only been broadened and consolidated but has also become fairer and more open. The market for goods based on material culture is radically changing, thus shifting from the competition based on low production costs to competition based on the quality of products, their symbolic value and the quality of the experience which they offer. Consequently, the immense production sector of material culture goods, driven by a rise in demand for quality products expressing aesthetics, decoration, design and traditional knowledge. The decision-making processes involved in consumer choices also tend to diverge: while in the model of creativity for innovation, the prevailing logic is of rational choices based on optimizing benefits, in the model of creativity for social quality the prevailing logic is of choices symbolically influenced by processes of identification with less stringent cost-benefit ratios. The two dimensions defining the reasons for the success of the creative industries, i.e. technological innovation and a focus on social and cultural quality, tend to combine and overlap: industrial design, for example, deals with new models of mobile telephones, while the online marketing of fashion products has carved out significant market shares. Technological culture and material culture at times crossover but are also successful as sectors in their own right.
Culture and Creativity
Culture is our history, our present and the gift we leave to future generations. Culture is our inexhaustible wealth. The more culture is consumed, the greater it grows and makes people grow, along with their identity and expertise. Culture is a consolidated universal commodity whose importance of development and protection has been overlooked and is not measured. We do not know its value in terms of the market and production. To use some suggestive images, we would point out that creativity can be found in our culture, in our surrounding territory, in the quality of our everyday life and our products. It is not an end in itself, but a process, an extraordinary mean to producing new ideas. In this sense, creativity and culture are the pillars of social quality, seen as a context of a free, economically developed, fair and culturally lively community with a high quality of life. Creativity and culture are inextricably bound. They are a successful combination which can position a nation at a time of strategic transition in the international process of globalisation. ,Countries shares history and institutions, and also presence of strong territorial, social, and economic bonds in which culture is tacitly transmitted. Countries compete with each other innovations and the knowledge economy and also ,collaborates in enhancing the value of culture and creativity. Why producing culture is an indispensable objective If we classify cultural policies in functional terms, we can distinguish at least four classes, the first two with negative values and the other two with positive values: on one hand are policies of cultural destruction and of neglect of cultural goods; and on the other are policies of conservation and production of culture. Countries preserve, manage and safeguard their cultural heritage. A great deal of public and private resource is allocated for the upkeep and maintenance. However a lot more needs to be done and higher resources need to be set aside for the production of a new culture, to avoid destroying our landscape, and to go beyond neglect which does little for the education of the young or the progress of technological research. We have forgotten that things never stand still and that in the increasingly high performing world of creativity and the cultural industries only those who are ahead of the field way will be equipped to continue to be leaders. The economic development of the cultural industries is strongly indebted to the phenomenon of creativity. Creativity is an asset in economic development for several reasons: as an input of aesthetic, decorative and design processes, creativity has an impact on the intangible component, which includes intellectual property of products
• as an input of innovative technological processes, creativity has an impact on innovation, productivity and the technical quality of, products
• by adding a symbolic dimension to products, creativity has an impact on demand and competitiveness • creativity tends to lead to the reorganisation of companies around an “epistemological community” and a “community of practice”.
We thus find a kind of joint presence of an intellectual/artistic/aesthetic/cognitive spirit and a more economic spirit (focused on the market and organizational rules). In short, great changes to society and culture have led to the transition from static systems to more dynamic, open systems, in which there is a more urgent approach to the issue of change, flexibility, and the capacity to tackle problems and deliver new solutions in decision-making.
A basic definition of creativity
Until neurobiology and psychology reveal the physical mechanisms (brain and, body, mind, and emotions) of the production of creativity, a general theory of creativity can’t be formed. For all practical purposes, creativity is referred to as a process with dependence on emotions and the outside environment. In terms of its economic value creative economy as the overall set of creative industries and services ranging from the content industries to software and design. Some studies have also analyzed the extraordinary dramatic biographies of artists in an attempt to map out the intellectual and psychoanalytical features of creative genius in behavioural variables such as the manic depressive syndrome, feelings of guilt, schizophrenia, etc. Creativity can be said to be an act of the human brain which takes the form of a process helping people to think and solve problems in a way that may be considered creative. A distinguishing feature of creativity has been highlighted by neurobiological research on the relations between brain and body, and emotions and environment. In this view, the emotions are seen as the vehicle for transmitting information and stimuli from the outside environment to our brain. Good emotions facilitate the generation of good ideas, and a culturally creative environment facilitates the production of creative ideas. But the social, productive and educational environment is something which depends on people and the quality of their actions.
The world of creativity It is important to establish the boundaries for this analysis for distinguishing between the productive process. As examples of incentives for creativity, the organizational structure of cultural districts, research enterprises, venture capital enterprises, departments of innovation, and social research institutes or companies can be cited. They are all organizational tools which generate elements of creativity within their own structure. At subjective level creativity is analyzed as an individual and human trait, which is socially and individually reproducible. The creative process is strongly influenced by the cultural milieu in which it develops. This is the key to the production of creativity. In fact, the freer and more interdisciplinary and stimulating a cultural environment (school or community) is, the greater the production of creativity and talent. Here, lies the importance of training for creative to human capital both in the educational system and through tacit learning in the field. The subjective aspect of creativity thus informs the strategies for maintaining constant or increasing the social level of creativity by means of:
• academic educational processes (fine arts schools, design schools, drama colleges, music schools, etc) • learning by doing processes in creative contexts, such as the city and territory, a cultural district and a system of music production
• Attracting talent from foreign countries
• Reducing costs in the access to culture (entrance to museums, free access to cultural goods on the Internet, less tax on cultural products), so that the country attains, with the obvious addiction effects, a higher level of individual participation and involvement in creative activities; cultural goods, art, and culture become an input underlying the development of future generations’ creativity
• the application of intellectual property rights and safeguards for creativity.
Styles and models of cultural production and creativity Culture and creativity combine in diverse ways according to the historical conditions of the various countries, giving rise to partly different models. In some countries, technological aspects prevail and technical innovations play a dominant role, in other economic aspects related to the development of markets and business prevail; in some, legal aspects and the application and development of copyright prevail and in others, cultural aspects, based on tradition and social quality, are the dominant features. Although the differences between the various countries’ models of creativity and of culture industries are expressed more in terms of shifts in emphasis than in content, two distinct profiles can be outlined. This is not a neutral exercise because each profile ultimately contributes to defining and identifying various sectors in the culture industry. The first profile considers creativity and culture production as an input of the knowledge society. Creativity is defined in relation to innovation and to an industrial model of producing cultural content. The focus in this approach is on scientific research, markets, business, and marketing products and creative services. the production of culture and creativity are enlisted in the development of the production of intellectual property. The cultural and creative industries taken into consideration become a subclass of those based on the assigning of copyright: the audiovisual sector, film, music, software, the performing arts, and publishing. The second profile conceives of creativity and cultural production as an input of social quality. This model can be described as Creativity for social quality. It mainly refers to the products of culture and social life and the sectors expressing them. There is a special focus on the world of material culture, i.e. the set of goods and services which man has produced since the dawn of humanity to modify his relationship with nature and society as it developed. Today the notion of “material culture”, a term originally from the field of anthropology, has been extended to sociological and economic analysis and embraces the enormous variety of markets of goods and services for people. Secondly, some important factors of progress in social quality include the growth of the content industries (film, radio and TV, publishing, software, and advertising) and the use and development, of the cultural heritage (archives, libraries, museums, monuments, art, music, and the performing arts). This approach enables the identification of a model of creativity and of the cultural industries, characterised not only by the logical coherence between the sectors included in the analysis but also its capacity to go beyond considering the impact of the culture industries only in terms of markets and business in order to highlight their great importance for social quality.
Social quality may be defined as the extent to which people can participate in social, economic and cultural life and in the development of their communities in conditions, which improve well-being and individual potential. At the same time, social quality may be defined as enabling individuals to pursue variable combinations of actions both elementary and complex. Culture is a major component of social quality. Primarily, because its daily production and consumption favours the development of the social fabric in terms of tighter community cohesion, better-quality human relations, feelings of trust, willingness to co-operate, and a stronger sense of identity. All of this modifies the restraints and opportunities of daily life, making the former less stringent and the latter better and more numerous. Creativity as a means and not an end Creativity is an essential input in the production of culture. Yet creativity is not an end in itself. If it were an end in itself, it would simply be acceptable also as activities expressing values which are not necessarily shared socially. For example, creativity generates great novels, but also hundreds of weekly hours of junk television; the Mafia and organized crime express forms of sociably deplorable organized creativity. If creativity is not an end, as a means it must be interpreted and filtered by the culture of the community in question. Seen in this way, creativity is the way of pursuing socially shared objectives endowed with value, also in the cultural and technological fields. Originality or the abstract beauty of creativity is not enough. To become social quality, creativity must pass the test of culture and art. The advent of atomic energy was an incredible leap forward for human creativity, scientific research and innovation, but to become social quality it must pass the test to guarantee protection of human life; and the ethical ends, which the atomic means can transcend, must be safeguarded through the refusal to accept destruction or a balance of terror. Creativity, tempered by ethical, cultural and artistic values is, thus, an extraordinary means for producing new culture. Mass production and distribution of the new goods and services of the cultural industries and the continual search for and accumulation of material culture goods and services enhance the quality of everyday life. Culture as history and local territory Time and space are the historical dimensions of the extraordinary waves of creativity running through the history of a nation. Culture industries and creativity have been shaped by the local territory, which primarily means material culture production, the quality of urban space and the space of enterprise districts. Culture is an idiosyncratic asset, specific to a spatially defined place and able to communicate its content to the whole world. The territorial origins of culture and of the goods and services of its consequent cultural production do not follow standard patterns but after a chance beginning, grow and are expressed around a system of clustered economies.
- Creative cities and creative spaces
Creative cities and creative spaces represent in an exemplary and innovative way how space and time are at the origin and are the outcome of creative and cultural phenomena. History is an accumulation of ideas, knowledge, mindsets, cultural atmospheres, identities and symbols. At each transition, successive generations leave enhanced creativity which for centuries has characterized the work and thought of the best talents. The context in which talents live influences the production of creativity and culture because the spatial phenomena of clustering have turned out to be important pre-requisites. These may include external economies, the production of trust and co-operation, and the strengthening of a sense of identity, of pride and of entrepreneurial energy. Therefore the city has been and partly continues to be the ideal framework for the production and social distribution of intangible cultural goods and flows of information and knowledge. Today’s cities are still meeting places of culture, where dialogue provides vital new sap and energy. Theoretical reconstruction of the value of local territory in explaining concentrations of creative talent has only been made relatively recently. The notion of a “creative milieu” is based on the free circulation of ideas, the accumulation of knowledge and the development in specific places of special expertise or skills. Creative cities are also places in which culture and creativity show very high levels of social quality. This can be noted in lifestyles, the quality of consumption, the cultural offering, policies of social inclusion, easy access to the historic and artistic heritage, and the capacity to attract cultural tourism. A concept of space enclosed by walls, natural peripheries or defences, typical of the city dimension, is a notion now being replaced by that of unbounded space defined by the local territorial area and we no longer have cities of culture, but culture is expressed in larger territories, which also give rise to creative and cultural experiences. From the economic point of view, there are five major prerogatives to industrial districts: a) the free circulation of information and ideas b) the rapid spread of technical innovations and processes and organizational innovations in general; c) the development of induced activities in neighbouring areas; d) the reduction of unitary costs and the greater use of machines following the introduction of highly specialized technology; e) the creation of a stable market for skilled labour due to the high concentration of companies. A society, based on inclusion and trust, encourages development insofar as it gives people more freedom to exploit opportunities that otherwise would be too risky or uncertain, and to introduce the necessary deep processes of industrial restructuring. Lastly, cohesion and social inclusion and the attendant forms of freedom are important factors in attracting new, different and unpredictable skilled resources. Historical and spatial conditions alone are not sufficient requisites for a successful industrial culture. It must also be able to guarantee a constant high level of creativity, and here public policies can play an important role. As an expression of the knowledge society, the cultural industries are based on innovations and technologies developed in the 20th century and which may, therefore, be considered relatively recent acquisitions. These knowledge clusters require the construction of demand for their products, a skilled labour market and a marketing industry on a worldwide scale. In this sense, the knowledge clusters share many aspects of the material culture districts. “Creative adoption” – i.e. the acquisition of “process technologies built into fixed capital including original, innovative and locally ‘appropriate’ grafting” – played a very positive role in the years of the economic miracle, but gradually became less influential with the rise of the economy based on knowledge and innovative processes. The capacity to explore new solutions in terms of innovations in processes, products or markets, means the adoptive process is not passive but is able, in turn, to generate subsequent stages in the creative re-elaboration of the innovations adopted. Creative processes strongly influence the sphere of material culture, which is the expression of the local territory and its communities. In this case, creativity is mainly the outcome of a collective, local and cumulative process, in which the cultural element is an inextricable part of the craft and everyday goods.